The antiviral drug. Oseltamivir phosphate is a pro-drug and its active metabolite (oseltamivir carboxylate) competitively and selectively inhibits neuraminidase influenza virus halotestin side effects enzyme that catalyzes the process of the release of newly formed virus particles from infected cells and their penetration into the epithelium of the respiratory cell pathways and the further spread of the virus in organism.
Oseltamivir carboxylate acts outside the cells. It inhibits the growth of influenza virus in vitro and suppressed viral replication and pathogenicity in vivo, reduces the allocation of influenza viruses A and B from the body. The concentration required to inhibit enzyme activity by 50% (IC 50 ) are located at the lower end nanomolar range.
It is proved that is effective in the prevention and treatment of influenza in adolescents (≥ 12 years), adults, elderly people, as well as a means of treatment of influenza in children older than 1 year.At the beginning of treatment no later than 40 hours after the first symptoms of flu, significantly reduces the period of the clinical manifestations of influenza infection, reduces their weight and reduces the incidence of flu complications requiring antibiotics (bronchitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media), shortens the time of virus isolation from the body and reduces the area under the curve “viral titers-time.”
When taken with the aim of preventing, Tamiflu significantly (by 92%) and significantly reduces the incidence of influenza among individuals exposed, reduces the frequency of virus isolation and prevent transmission of the virus from one family member to another.
Tamiflu has no effect on the formation of anti-antibodies, including production of antibodies in response to inactivated influenza vaccines.
During the circulation of halotestin side effects influenza in the population, there have been a single, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in children aged 1-12 years (mean age 5.3) who have had a fever (> 100 the F), accompanied by one of the respiratory symptoms (cough or acute rhinitis). In this study 67% of patients were infected with influenza A and 33% of patients were infected with B. Treatment, which started within 48 hours after onset of symptoms, significantly reduced the duration of illness by 35.8 hours compared with placebo. The duration of disease was defined as the time needed to reduce cough, runny nose, fever, and permission to return to normal and usual activity. The proportion of the children of patients who developed acute otitis media and who took Tamiflu, was reduced by 40% compared to placebo. Children receiving Tamiflu returned to normal, and normal activity almost 2 days earlier than those receiving placebo.
According to the data available to date, while taking halotestin side effects for the purpose of post-exposure (7 days) and seasonal (42 days) prevention of influenza resistance to the drug is not marked.
The frequency of transient isolation of influenza virus with reduced sensitivity to neuraminidase oseltamivir carboxylate in adult patients with influenza is 0.4% Elimination of resistant virus from patients receiving Tamiflu, there is no deterioration of the clinical condition of patients.
The frequency of resistance of clinical isolates of influenza virus halotestin side effectsdoes not exceed 1.5%. Among clinical isolates of influenza virus has been detected in the resistant strains of the drug.